About Krystal Volney

Krystal Volney is an award-winning West Indian writer (Trinidadian-Dominican) who was born on the island of Trinidad. Her favourite novels as a child were the Nancy Drew files, the Babysitter's club and the famous five. She started writing both female and male poetry in categories such as fashion, romance, the environment and children's poetry in the year 2010 (Cosmos and Spheres poetry book- Bestselling Ebook). She views humans as both "monarch and emperor butterflies" because of the transformation from an egg into a butterfly showcasing the metamorphosis as various stages of one's experiences throughout life. She claims that as a result of the prodigious difference between each human being in the global society, experiences differ and some persons mature into butterflies while some remain at a particular stage permanently at various points in their longevity. The contemporary poetess's character is floral. In the 21st century, this means that one consists of many petals and each petal tells a different story of who she is. She sees the "tiger lily" and "hibiscus flowers" as demonstrating what it means to be a woman and a lady. Some of her influences have been Mozart, Van Gogh, Emily Dickinson and Claude Monet.

Perception and Impressions in Society

There are numerous medical professionals, experts, sociologists and psychologists globally that would accept that studying people’s impressions about others in society is a fascinating subject. Perception is seen as the system in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted. Impressions are ideas, sentiments or opinions about something or someone, especially those formed without conscious thought or on the basis of little evidence. It does not matter the age of the mortals because all humans experience these moments in their activities and communications with others.

        In Psychology, a First Impression is the occurrence when one person first comes across another individual and forms a mental image of that being. Impression truthfulness varies depending on the spectator and the target (individual, object, scene, etc.) being perceived. Countless people are acquainted with the aphorism, “The first impression is the last impression”.

In life, most persons want a “trophy” wife, husband, girlfriend or boyfriend to charm their social circles’ impressions or the public generally as “power couples”. Other modest folks settle down with someone who is trustworthy, honest or for religious reasons. Individuals in the global culture tend to desire “pairing up” with each other’s accomplishments or family backgrounds. It is indeed precise to declare that not because someone is attractive like Adonis means you should give him or her, your attention as William Shakespeare once indicated, “All that glitters isn’t gold”. He is the best acknowledged poet to have conveyed the perception that shimmering things aren’t necessarily treasurable.

Additionally, the genuine associations that survive are the ones where significant others get to truly know each other “behind the scenes” and appreciate each other’s’ true colours. The relationships that still work if people in most cultures bond even without eminence and having financial success are true love. According to Maslow, there is a necessity for affection and belongingness. After physiological and safety needs have been satisfied, the third level of human needs is social and involves feelings of belongingness. The requirement for interpersonal relationships motivates behaviour. Cases include friendship, intimacy, dependence and acceptance, receiving and giving care.

Also, social networks shape people’s personalities to crave constant admiration for their appearances, education, awards and financial status (net worth). This has made them into superficial, narcissistic and condemnatory beings only wanting to associate with others who they can use for something such as popularity to fit in as a norm in society. On the other hand, they may do philanthropy by associating with the ‘inferior’. Selfish people don’t care about who others are sincerely; they care about what they’re ‘worth’; it’s the story of their lives.

Exhibitionist narcissists consider themselves as being exceptionally talented, astonishing and successful because they worked firmly for where they have reached in life on the ladder. They love to present themselves to others and seek approval from them. Social networks give them stress-free access to an enormous audience. As a consequence, investigators have suspected that these sites are an ideal breeding ground.

However, it’s significant in existence to not judge or condemn anyone because he or she may not have shared his or her life story for many reasons that could have caused the longing for unceasing attention from peers. Those persons may have lost someone close to them in life or may suffer from low self-esteem because of diverse types of abuse in the household from family or spouse, where it is essential to escape from the severe reality of life.

Furthermore, greed and the love of money have broken up friendships and couples. Various people are your friends until they begin competing with you. According to Psychologist Dr. Perpetua Neo, “Whether it’s your job promotion, a romantic partner, or a new class you’re doing, your toxic friend will compete with you. They won’t like the idea of you having anything that doesn’t involve them, and they especially don’t want you to excel at something. They want to compete with you, even if you’re not competing with them. Even if you’re in a completely different field, they want the same things you do.”

To conclude, when journalists abuse public figures on ezines and tabloids, most twist the truth about their personal lives and obsess over their every move, giving readers false impressions of the people they enjoy analysing. It is erroneous to target others or judge them based on someone else’s opinion. Real love is like running together in the storms holding hands not bringing down anyone and also being there for others in the fair weather.

By: Krystal Volney




Interview with Dr. Vinton Cerf

The Internet is one of the best inventions of all time as it has made it possible for the human civilization to do many things. People can purchase items in various online stores such as Amazon and Ebay as well as correspond with family, fans and friends via social networks, watch the latest records on YouTube, blog and so much more.


When I interviewed Dr. Vinton Cerf (Father of the Internet and Vice President of Google), I asked him

  • How would you best describe yourself from now and when you first created the internet?

I am a lot older! I was 30 when we started the Internet design and I am 73 now. I am just as enthusiastic about the Internet and its potential now but I am also much more concerned about safety, privacy, reliability in the online world than I was back in 1973.

  • What motivates you in today’s world of computing and internet?

The demonstrated potential of the Internet, smart phones and “Internet of Things” to say nothing of advances in artificial intelligence increases my belief that we have only just begun to take advantage of the power of computing and communication.

3) Are there any new technologies that you plan to introduce with the internet in the present or future?

I hope we can make better use of broadcast technology (e.g. from satellites). We should increase coverage and project LOON at Google is one way to achieve that. Increasing use of strong authentication methods including two-factor authentication will protect consumers.

4) If you had any advice to someone just starting out, what would it be?

We know so little about the universe now (75% Dark Energy, 20% Dark Matter, 5% ordinary matter) that you should go into astrophysics – anything you do there might win the Nobel prize! On the other hand programmable devices, neural networks, electronic/neural interfaces, nano-scale devices, self-organizing systems… well, the list seems endless and growing when it comes to new frontiers of technology worthy of exploration!

The Big Bang Theory

“Doing easily what others find it difficult is talent; doing what is impossible for talent is genius.”-Henri-Frédéric Amiel

The majority of the television show “The Big Bang Theory” concentrates on physics in science particularly. The four leading male characters are employed at Caltech (California Institute of Technology) and have science-related occupations, as do the female characters Bernadette and Amy. The characters regularly chat about precise theories or news (markedly around the start of the show) and make science-related jokes.


Additionally, science has interfered with the characters’ romantic lives. Leslie broke up with Leonard when he took sides with Sheldon while supporting the String theory rather than her support for Loop Quantum Gravity. When Leonard united Raj, Howard and Sheldon on a three-month Arctic research journey, it separated Leonard and Penny at the time their relationship was growing. When Bernadette became interested in Leonard’s work, it made both Penny and Howard resentful. This led to Howard confronting Leonard and Penny requesting Sheldon to teach her physics. Furthermore, Sheldon and Amy briefly concluded their relationship after a disagreement over which of their fields was superior to the other’s.

Whereas Salzberg knows physics, he sometimes desires support from Mayim Bialik, who has a Ph.D. in neuroscience. David Saltzberg, who has a PhD in physics, has served as science mentor for the show for six seasons and appears at every taping. Salzberg sees initial versions of scripts which need scientific facts added to them and he also points out where the journalists, regardless of their knowledge of science, have made an error. Usually, he is not needed during a taping unless a lot of science, and especially the whiteboard, is involved.

So what precisely is the Big Bang Theory about? It is only one of the most significant theories in astronomy. The basics of the theory are justly simple. All of the present and past matter in the universe came into existence at the same time. At a point in time, about 13.7 billion years ago all matter was compacted into a very small ball with infinite density, and intense heat called a singularity. Unexpectedly, that singularity began to expand and the universe came into being.

As stated by generally acknowledged theory, singularities are zones which challenge the current understanding that human beings have of physics. They are thought to be at the core of most black holes. A black hole is a region of intense gravitational pressure. That pressure is theorized to be so intense that finite matter is essentially compressed until it has infinite density. This area of infinite density is named a singularity. The universe is believed to have arisen as one of these infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense singularities. The where and why of it all (there still isn’t a firm grasp of) but the big bang is the topic at which that singularity suddenly began to increase and generated our universe as it moved outwards.


Various scientists supposed that if the universe was created by a singularity, there ought to be a background heat still in existence in the universe. In order to comprehend why a scientist would deliberate that there is still heat from the big bang, it is noteworthy to be familiar with the notion that the universe is still expanding. Galaxies seem to be moving away from planet earth at speeds relative to their distance. This is referred to as Hubble’s Law, named after the person who discovered this fact, Edwin Hubble, in 1929. This observation supports the development of the universe and proposes that the universe was once compacted. So, if the universe was at first compact and very hot, it would be easier to find some of that heat still. In 1965 two radio astronomers, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, discovered a 2.725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) which infiltrates the observable universe. This is viewed to be the remainder which scientists were looking for.

The Big Bang Theory is an American sitcom formed by Chuck Lorre and Bill Prady, who both serve as executive producers on the show along with Steven Molaro. They also serve as head writers. It premiered on CBS on September 24, 2007.The seventh season premiered on September 26, 2013. The fictional character in the sitcom that interests me the most is Sheldon Cooper, B.S., M.S., M.A., Ph.D., Sc.D. He was a child prodigy from Galveston, Texas with an eidetic memory who began college at the age of 11 (after completing the fifth grade), started graduate studies at 14, and earned a Ph.D. at 16. Evidently an early genius in life: – many scientists, nerds, geeks, polymaths and curious beings can relate to or admire such an imagined character as in the case of William James Sidis.

Moreover, he is a theoretical physicist researching quantum mechanics and string theory. With two master’s degrees, a Ph.D., a Sc.D., he also has an IQ of 187. The character’s personality demonstrates a severe adherence to routine and a lack of understanding of irony and sarcasm; he is as well uninterested in many of the romantic hijinks of his friends. Sheldon has an apartment with Leonard Hofstadter, crossways the hall from Penny and turns to both for advice in social scenarios. Sheldon is quite egotistical and he habitually boasts about his intelligence, although he lacks social skills.

Sheldon depends on his friends to drive him around and he eventually tries to go for his driver’s license in season 2, but is unsuccessful in completing the task. In season four, he starts a relationship with Amy Farrah Fowler, who becomes his first girlfriend during the fifth season, even though he is wary of germs and physical contact. His character is somewhat introverted, except when it comes to getting his own way or demeaning the accomplishments of his friends. In addition to that, Sheldon follows an extreme ritualized way of living and has an obsession to see things completed. This entails sitting in the same spot on the sofa or knocking on a door three times before saying the name of whom he’s addressing and repeating this three times, (to name a few examples).

When reviewing Sheldon’s character, it was clear that he was interesting but the term interesting can be viewed from many perspectives. Some people in society view geniuses as skilled persons who were trained in their respective fields in order to accomplish their goals from an early age in their lives. Other individuals believe that geniuses have a greater ability for learning and therefore become successful earlier in life than other members of the public. An example of this as mentioned before was William James Sidis, another child prodigy but not a fictional character.

William James Sidis, the world-famous child prodigy was said to have been a “prodigious failure.” He actually wrote many books, articles, and periodicals under various pseudonyms.  In addition, there are as many as ten manuscripts not yet found. He created a general theory of the phenomena of the universe based on the theory of logical probability as well as the Animate and the Inanimate. Recent discoveries by the Hubble Space Telescope, other NASA and EU satellites suggest the correctness of his theory that “Big Bang” is wrong. Sidis argued that it is far more likely that the universe is eternal.

When comparing the characters of Sheldon Cooper and Sidis, both are usually characterized as extremely intelligent, socially inept and rigidly logical. Despite Cooper’s intellect, he occasionally displays a lack of common sense. He has a superiority complex but also has childlike qualities, of which he seems unaware, such as extreme stubbornness. The first four episodes of The Big Bang Theory depict Sheldon inconsistently with his later characterization. As said by Prady, the character “began to evolve after episode five or so and became his own thing.”

What makes Sheldon Cooper interesting? It depends on what particular individuals consider admirable in the ideal personality. Many believe that humans are imperfect beings and personality being a largely significant factor to human well-being, that being intelligent is important. However, what precisely should intelligent be? The ability to be educated with high scores on every test or possessing common sense? It is factual that having both qualities in the makeup of a personality are essential for a healthier and more intellectual mind.

Sheldon possesses an eidetic memory and an IQ of 187, although he claims his IQ cannot be correctly measured by normal tests.  In the beginning he claimed to have a Master’s Degree and two doctoral degrees, but this list has increased. Cooper also has an extensive general knowledge in many subjects including chemistry, biology, astronomy, cosmology, physics, mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, vector calculus, computers, computer science, electronics, engineering, history, geography and linguistics. He is also a polyglot that speaks various languages like Spanish, French, Chinese Mandarin, Persian, Arabic, Finnish and Klingon from Star Trek. Furthermore, he shows gifted talent in music, expressing himself by playing the piano and the recorder as well as having the ‘perfect-pitch’. Even though his friends have similar intellects to him, his eccentricities, obstinacy and lack of empathy often aggravate them. Sheldon occasionally uses slang (in a very unnatural fashion) and follows jokes with his catchphrase “Bazinga!” This became a formally registered trademark of Warner Brothers.

Humor writer Josh Billings once stated, “Genius learns from nature; talent from books.” In the same year 1953, he also declared, “Men of genius are scarce, but men of genius who use their genius for the benefit of the world are scarcer.” The question remains whether true geniuses lack common sense and social skills when dealing with ordinary global citizens. In today’s world, the term “misfit” has been deemed as something positive although it carried a derogatory connotation before. Therefore, what should be deemed as greater? To be greatly skilled as a polymath and universal genius with an inability to relate to other human beings or being an ordinary sociable person with many friends? Would the world truly be a better place with more geniuses that had more in common with those who questioned their personalities or would it be an improved place if everyone was similar to each other but not intellectuals? When there are geniuses involved, there is room for inferiority for those that are not considered to be genius and therefore, social inequality. Whether it should be imperative to promote being highly intelligent for everyone in an already unequal world is a question to be discussed by theorists and those who desire to advance the global society.

Global Communication and Mail

“The Internet lives where anyone can access it.”- Dr Vinton Cerf

The preparation of communication by written documents carried by an intermediary from one individual or location to another approximately dates back nearly to the invention of writing. On the other hand, development of formal postal systems transpired considerably later. The first documented procedure of an organized courier service for the diffusion of written documents is in Egypt, where Pharaohs used couriers for the diffusion of their decrees in the region of the State (2400 BC). The original remaining piece of mail is also Egyptian, dating to 255 BC.


Letter-sized mail involves the majority of the contents sent through most postal services. Typically, these are documents printed on A4 (210×297 mm), Letter-sized (8.5×11 inches), or reduced paper and positioned in envelopes.

Handwritten correspondence, although formerly a major means of communications between faraway people, is nowadays utilized less regularly due to the introduction of more immediate means of communication, such as the telephone or e-mail. However, old-fashioned letters are repeatedly deliberated to flash back to an “ordinary time” and are still used when anyone desires to be unhurried and attentive about his or her communication, depending on the courier mail service used. Bills and invoices are every so often sent through the mail, similar to consistent billing correspondence from utility companies and other service providers. These letters often hold a self-addressed envelope that permits the receiver to remit payment back to the company straightforwardly. Despite the fact that it is still very common, many populaces now opt to use online bill payment services, which eliminate the need to receive bills through the mail. Paperwork for the approval of large financial transactions is often sent through the mail. Numerous tax documents are as well.

New credit cards and their equivalent personal identification numbers are sent to their owners through the mail. The card and number are usually mailed separately several days or weeks away from each other for security reasons. Bulk mail is mail that is prepared for bulk mailing, often by presorting, and handling at reduced rates. It is frequently used in direct marketing and other marketing mail, although it has other uses as well. The senders of these messages sometimes purchase lists of addresses (which are occasionally targeted towards certain demographics) and then send letters promoting their invention or service to all receivers. Other times, commercial solicitations are sent by resident companies advertising local products, like a café delivery service advertising to their delivery area or a sales store sending their weekly advertising circular to a general area. Furthermore, bulk mail is often sent to companies’ present subscriber bases, advertising new products or services.

There are a number of other things almost without any exception sent absolutely as letters through postal services, like birthday and festivity invitations. Email has long been the most widely used Internet application. For some people, it is also their most frequent form of communication. Email is also the technology underlying mailing lists.

Email servers exchange messages over the Internet using the SMTP protocol. Client applications log into the servers to send and receive email using one of several protocols, including POP3, IMAP, and MAPI. The following are necessary that provide more information:

Who sent the first e-mail?

Ray Tomlinson was the first person to send out an e-mail in late 1971. The electronic mail was sent between two machines that were side-by-side and the only physical joining they had was through the ARPANet.

In 1978, Dr. V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai had been enrolled for programming projects at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) in Newark, New Jersey. Dr. Leslie P. Michelson, acknowledged his talents and tested him to transform the conventional paper-constructed interoffice and inter-organizational communication system (i.e. paper-based mail and documents) to an electronic communication system.

Email is quite rapid and almost instant, while traditional post takes quite some time; e-mail usually arrives within minutes or seconds, depending on the type. This can be beneficial when people need a quick response, but a phone call would be far too expensive, depending on the budget of the individual.

With use of cryptographic signing, you can prove that the email came from you; this reduces the effectiveness of ‘spoofing’ and means that no one can pretend to be you. However, implementing cryptographic signing does require some end-user training, especially in ensuring that people observe proper security protocols.

Advantages of emails are-

  • Emails are simple to use as global citizens can organize their daily correspondence, send and receive electronic messages as well as save them on computers.
  • Emails are rapid. They are delivered at once around the globe. No other form of written communication is as fast as an email.
  • The language used in emails is simple and can be informal.
  • When you reply to an email, you can attach the original message so that when you answer the recipient, he/she knows what you are chatting about. This is significant if you get dozens or hundreds of emails a day.
  • It is possible to send automated emails with a certain text. In such a way, it is likely to tell the sender that you are on vacation or busy at work. These emails are called auto responders.
  • Emails do not use paper. They are Environment friendly and protect many trees from being cut down. In the past fifty years, much of the rainforest in Africa and Asia has been damaged. Large areas of rainforest are being removed, often in order to eliminate just a few logs, and the rainforest is being destroyed at double the rate of all previous estimates. Regrettably, this means that there is a very high rate of extinction, as the wildlife depending on the forest dies with it.
  • Emails can also have pictures from events in them. You can send birthday cards or newsletters as emails.
  • Merchandises can be advertised with emails. Companies can reach numerous people and inform them in a short period.

When I interviewed Dr. V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai, I asked him and he stated,

1. How would you best describe yourself from now and when you first created email?

I’m still the same boy who invented email back in 1978 at UMDNJ. In the sense, my curiosity, passion, love of creating new things, working with great people and a sense of mission to have an impact to make others lives better, has not changed one iota — if anything, I’ve become more of child as the years have passed. I still love the same things beyond innovation and science that I did then, baseball, design, music, cooking, and anything beautiful including people, homes, art, and nature.

2. In a growing age of internet technology, in your opinion should postal mail be stopped on a large scale and everyone should use their emails instead as an effective tool of communication?

When any new media, such as email emerges, people believe the thing that it is replacing will die; however, history shows, what actually happens, is that there is a kind of media natural selection process. By this I mean, that the media find their right “ecological niche.” Handwritten, printed letters have their niche, and will email, due its unique properties. There is still something for some people about the experience of send and receiving flowers, for example, with a lovely card. Just as Radio did not disappear when TV appear or live performance and theater did not disappear with the advent of film. My view is actually quite the opposite, as I share in the Epilogue of my new book The Email Revolution: the postal system should actually embrace and take over email or at the least compete with the private companies such as Google and FaceBook. Today, we read a lot about Snowden’s alarming citizens about the NSA spying on our emails; however, what we miss is that Google, Yahoo, HotMail, etc. have free reign over our email — right when we sign up for these “free” services, we give away our privacy — they can literally do anything with our email. However, over hundreds of years, the postal service, has a massive body of law, created to protect the tampering and transit of mail — this body of law could be more easily applied to email, thereby providing the postal service the opportunity for citizens to likely get a more secure and private service at a nominal cost. Would you not pay say $50 per year to know that you email was secure, private and protected by the democratic laws, that YOU can still control?

3. What motivates you?

I am motivated by an addictive desire to change the world, vanquish evil and free the oppressed. My heroes growing up were Rama, Emiliano Zapata, Bhagat Singh, Che Guevara, Lenin, and those that saw the world where all of where ultimately brothers and sisters, fought, and when necessary risked their lives to create such a world. They were conscious enough to see that they were insignificant as one individual, but the right actions at the right time in history, even by the insignificant could have massive impact, like the butterfly effect.

4. Are there any new technologies that you plan to introduce with email in the present or future?

Yes, on the email side, we have released a version of EchoMail (www.echomail.com) for the mass of millions of small businesses, who also want the same technology we provided for nearly twenty years to the Global 2000 companies, to get, keep and grow customers. Separate from email, which I invented in 1978, 15 years later, fortuitously, and independent of that creation, I created another system called EchoMail, to automatically read, anlayze, sort and route email. That technology developed out of my winning a White House contest to help President Clinton automatically sort his inbound email in 1993. EchoMail was advanced with many features to help businesses grow their businesses, and only accessible, until recently, to big businesses. It’s a powerful tool. My vision is that small businesses, need the same powerful capabilities as the big businesses, and the new version of EchoMail is made very affordable for any business. Beyond my work in email and in media, by other love is medicine. Most recently, we just started a new company called CytoSolve — if email was a big invention, I think CytoSolve will be bigger. CytoSolve allows the in silico modeling of human cells, so we can create new medicines without the need to torture and kill animals.

Global nations know that there are a lot of emails sent, opened and lost in the spam/junk mail every day. However, just how many emails are sent? What is the usual amount? How many of us open email on a mobile device? The numbers are astounding.

  • Hotmail , Yahoo Mail and Gmail together account for well over 1 billion users.
  • More than 294 billion emails are sent and received daily.
  • Well over 100 trillion emails are sent per year.
  • 3.5 million Emails are sent per second.
  • 90% of the trillions of email messages are spam or viruses.
  • Spam costs businesses over $20 billion in decreased productivity and technology expenses.
  • Retailers send an average of 16 emails per subscriber in “busy” months.
  • Average email campaign volumes increased 20% in 2012 over 2011 levels.
  • 77% of us want to get marketing messages via email; and there’s no close second place.
  • 36% of all emails are opened on a mobile device.
  • In 2011 there were over 400 million people who used smartphones or tablets to access email.


Figure 1.1 demonstrates sharing documents via email happens daily.

The existence of servers plays a fundamental role in Internet communications.

 A server is a fast, dynamic computer or bank of computers with enormous amounts of data storage. The straightforward function of a server is to store data and then serve or deliver that information to users when requested. Servers are specifically designed for their function and there are many kinds such as e-mail servers, web servers, ISP servers, and DNS servers to name a few. They work together to make up the backbone of the Internet and allow our communications with it. These servers are normally located in an ISP office or many large web site search engines will have them as well.

 Function of Email

It is imperative to understand that e-mail travels over the Internet from server to server. For case in point: If you send an e-mail to a friend or business colleague living in Japan or Canada, you would log on to your e-mail server, type the e-mail address in the “To:” box and then type the message. Once you select “Send”, your server uses the address to forward the e-mail to your friend’s server. Your associate then retrieves the e-mail during his next log on to his server.

ISP Based Email

As revealed before, e-mail is accessible through either an ISP or a free service. The provider’s title is usually part of the address revealing what type it is. All ISP’s give at least one e-mail account per customer but some people decide not to utilize it. They prefer instead to use a free e-mail account. It is common to access ISP e-mail with a client software package installed on the user’s computer. Programs like Microsoft Outlook Express (included with Windows), Microsoft Outlook, QUALCOMM Eudora and Mozilla Thunderbird, in addition to many others are intended for this purpose. When a client program is unlocked, it contacts the ISP e-mail server and synchronizes to accept new e-mails or updates. The client program has all functions related to e-mail like composing and deleting. After making modifications, the user can close the client program or manually press a Send/Receive button to update the server. Once updated, the server will replicate the changes and send e-mails consequently. ISP’s generally provide web-based access on their website allowing consumers to access e-mail from any web connection. This either can be for users who do not want to use a client or are not there from their normal computers.


Numerous search engines and websites like yahoo.com, hotmail.com, and gmail.com propose free e-mail service. These e-mail accounts are entirely web-based and widespread notwithstanding the advertisements users must endure. Such reputation also creates a breeding ground for spam. Web based e-mail is accessible through web browsers. The web site supplies a web interface for handlers to gain access. Mail is under no circumstances stored on the user’s computer unless it is purposefully saved there. This creates a security zone from malware and other uninvited items that might be hiding. Nonetheless, if an attachment is opened or a linkage selected, it will use a program on the operator’s local computer hence opening the probability for infection.

Note well when signing up for free e-mail; it involves personal information during registration. Some people use fictional names as well as other false information. Users who plan to use the e-mail address for expert correspondence should deliberate on using their real name or initials. This name will be attached to all e-mail sent and might puzzle recipients. Certain free e-mail services do allow the sent name to be altered making it different from the registered name.


  Spam is junk e-mail from advertisers, companies, or people you do not know. It is similar to junk mail sent to your household. Many times, it contains inappropriate words in the subject line as well as suggestive phrases. Most people wonder how they get Spam when they use antivirus protection software on their computer. Spam is not a virus- it is just undesirable e-mail. Moreover, it is normally stored on the server, not the user’s computer. Many e-mail providers scan for Spam but are typically overwhelmed and miss some. Setting filter parameters is also complicated when discerning between Spam and legitimate e-mail. If a user checks e-mail with a web interface, there is no concern with Spam prevention on the local computer since it stays entirely on the e-mail server. Typically, there is a technique to designate e-mail as Spam that will try to block future e-mail from the same sender.

More than two billion people use the internet. The top five countries in internet usage are China, United States, Japan, India and Brazil.  It is challenging to comprehend the notion of any given moment without someone in the world being connected to it for one purpose or another. Email is a virtual communication system that has changed the way companies conduct business. Email accelerates the exchange of information, eradicates global barriers, keeps communication costs low and allows business persons the flexibility to access their messages from anywhere in the world. By its very nature, companies benefit from the many advantages that email offers.


Oil and Gas Exploration into the Arctic

The Arctic consists of Canada, Russia, Greenland, United States (Alaska) and Norway where each particular petroleum company is based. The multinational oil companies existent there face health and safety issues because of the extremity of those climates in the world.


The purpose of their existence is to drill and explore in regions where drastic melting of glaciers and ice makes it simpler to do so as a result of global warming. Many scientists and curiosity seekers ponder whether the continuous exploration of oil and gas into the arctic will allow developing countries to become more advanced while safety mechanisms are put into place. On the other hand, in developing countries the question remains, is there a need for more energy to evolve in terms of technology and science when there are other natural resources? Many scientists argue that as the possibility of extracting oil in traditional fields has decreased, there is a necessity to search for new sources of petroleum in other global areas such as the Arctic. Petroleum is used to make products from aspirins and toothpaste to CDs, as well as gasoline. Crude oil is made mainly of hydrocarbons. These are compounds made only of hydrogen and carbon, such as methane. Petroleum is separated by distillation into various substances such as aviation fuel, gasoline and paraffin. As oil is heated in a distillation column, a mixture of gases evaporates. Each gas cools and condenses at different heights to a liquid, or fraction, which is then drawn off. Most emerging nations have plentiful renewable energy resources, comprising of solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy and biomass. Additionally, they have the ability to manufacture the relatively labor-intensive systems that harness these. By developing such energy sources developing countries can decrease their dependence on oil and natural gas, creating energy portfolios that are not as much vulnerable to price rises. In many conditions, these investments can be less expensive than fossil fuel energy systems. However, it has been stated that alternative resources do not produce more energy than oil does. Most emerging nations have plentiful renewable energy resources, comprising of solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy and biomass. Additionally, they have the ability to manufacture the relatively labor-intensive systems that harness these. By developing such energy sources developing countries can decrease their dependence on oil and natural gas, creating energy portfolios that are not as much vulnerable to price rises. In many conditions, these investments can be less expensive than fossil fuel energy systems. However, it has been stated that alternative resources do not produce more energy than oil does. In 2012, one of NASA’s ice experts, Dr. Walt Meier declared: “This year will without a doubt rank in the top five lowest levels of ice extent ever recorded in the satellite era and there is a good possibility that 2013 could rank second in terms of recorded ice lows”, as a scientist at the National Snow & Ice Data Center. According to the Climate Depot, earth gained a record amount of sea ice in 2013 — Earth has gained 19,000 Manhattans of sea ice since September 2012 last year which is the largest escalation on record.


Figure 1 demonstrates that there is more sea ice now than there was on this date in 2002. 2 Figure 2 depicts the regional distribution of arctic undiscovered oil resources (including NGL)


Figure 3 displays the regional distribution of arctic undiscovered natural gas resources (incl. NGL) Over the last decade a small number of comprehensive assessments of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Arctic have been carried out with to a certain extent different results. Wood Mackenzie (2006) assessed the undiscovered reserves in the arctic regions and questioned the perception of the Arctic as one of the last great oil and gas frontiers (Oil & Gas Journal, 2006). The study established that total arctic undiscovered petroleum resources were only around 43 per cent of the estimates in USGS (2000). For oil, the study concluded that expected undiscovered resources for North American Arctic and Greenland were merely a quarter of earlier estimates made by USGS in 2000. On the other hand, Wood Mackenzie raised up the estimates for natural gas in the Arctic West Russia compared with the USGS 2000 assessment. The petroleum supply from the arctic region as a whole would, according to Wood Mackenzie, peak around 2030 at 8 million barrels of oil equivalents per day (boe/d). Additionally, it would be with 40 per cent oil and 60 per cent gas in the most likely scenarios, as a greater share of gas would essentially involve remote gas too expensive to transport to markets according to the Wood Mackenzie assessment. Wood Mackenzie decided that the undiscovered resources are mainly located in either ice-free or seasonal ice-free areas, which call for modifications of technology only – not new solutions. Subsea drilling is to be expected to be utilized for the grander share of the offshore resources. In 2008, the USGS completed their Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), assessing the undiscovered petroleum resources north of the Arctic Circle in more detail (USGS, 2008). The study used a probability-geology based methodology covering sediments expected to have more than 10 per cent probability of having one or more significant oil or gas resources, i. e. fields containing more than 50 mill boe. These resources were assumed to be recoverable without explicit economic considerations; however, implicitly the size of fields accounted for indicates economic viability. The study did not consider the specific challenges associated with the ice cover and excluded resources where production would have to rely on technology that was not yet available. Around 80 per cent of the resources were found offshore, but relatively shallow under less than 500 meters of water (Gautier et al, 2009). Undiscovered petroleum resources were estimated by USGS (2008) to be 8.5 per cent higher than their 2000 estimate, leaving the Wood Mackenzie (2006) estimate at only around 40 per cent of the new USGS resource estimate. The 2008 assessment reduced oil resource estimates and increased gas resource estimates compared with the USGS 2000 assessment. Estimates of oil resources in Norway, Greenland and Russia were lowered and raised in Alaska and Canada. Gas resource estimates were lowered in Norway and increased in all the other regions. Still, after a 50 per cent downward adjustment, Greenland oil resources were estimated to 18 per cent of total arctic oil resources. As a reminder, note however that the methods used in the USGS (2000) and USGS (2008) assessments differ, hence the results are not directly comparable. According to USGS (2008), the total amount of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Arctic is 413 bboe, about 22 per cent of the global undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources. Further, they find that the Arctic contains 134 bboe of oil (including natural gas liquids, NGL) or about 15 per cent of total global oil resources. Henceforth, 279 bboe or close to 70 per cent of the arctic petroleum is gas. How much of the globe’s oil and gas resources have already been revealed and what is the prospective for future discoveries? Confirmed reserves are defined as completely identified and economically viable resources. The USGS 2000 approximation of global undiscovered oil and gas resources is based on geological information and makes up around 90 per cent of what is defined as global proven reserves in BP (2010). There is great uncertainty related with resource estimates in the Arctic, where substantial shares of the resources are under the sea bed and exploration drilling is expensive.

Interview with Paul Cooijmans, Administrator of the Giga Society

“Membership of the Giga Society is ideally open to anyone outscoring .999999999 of the adult population on at least one of the accepted tests. This means that in theory one in a billion individuals can qualify. Please do not confuse this criterion with popularly published scores on childhood tests (which are mental/biological age ratio I.Q.s that are not comparable with deviation I.Q.s and tend to be much higher), estimated I.Q.s of famous people, or self-claimed I.Q.s of megalomaniacs. You cannot join by simply listing your real-life achievements, diplomas and the like, even though you are of course of greater value to society because of those than you would be because of a high test score.


Main goal of the Giga Society is to further the establishment of mental ability test norms in the very high range. This is done by recognizing high-scoring candidates for their effort in taking the tests (not for being intelligent), Giga Society membership being one of the incentives for test-taking. Into the bargain, this also promotes the general goals of high-range I.Q. testing, as well as the study of creativity. Inspired by the prospect of membership, many take the tests, thus bringing in much research data. This is explained so explicitly in this paragraph because experience has shown that some otherwise misunderstand the nature of the society, and mistake it for a cult of megalomania.

The society was founded in 1996 by Paul Cooijmans, who has served as its Psychometitor since, and has a journal named Nemesis which appears after every enrollment, the first of which occurred in 1999.”- Giga Society’s Website




How would you best describe yourself?

I would describe myself as an honest, ethical, conscientious, intelligent person who was born such that he can only see and deal with the essence of things, rather than being superficial and dealing with appearance. This necessarily leads to doing things that are rare or have not been done before, and to being an autodidact.


What motivates you?

My motivations are to learn or discover how the universe and parts of it work – so, “curiousness” – and to make things of a high and lasting quality that will get through to people and help them become truthful and righteous. To end unrighteousness and evil is a motivation too.


What makes a good team leader?

I do not believe in the concept of “team leader”, and reject the social dynamics supposedly connected to such a concept, do not acknowledge them as a bona fide part of human interaction. The only kind of leadership I recognize is leading by example, showing the way.


What is your perspective on fashion in today’s world?

While fashion is not my core business, I do observe an internal contradiction or inconsistency in it: On the one hand, fashion, or at least some of it, is meant to be beautiful, esthetic, even art, but on the other hand, fashion is by definition that what is popular in a given period, and therefore is transient. But what is beautiful now should be beautiful always; if one accepts that beauty is an objective quality, which I believe. So, fashion that is truly beautiful is by definition not fashion after all. I myself am not very much affected by the transient aspect of fashion, but I can see what is truly beautiful.


What are your biggest strengths?

Persistence, perfectionism, and other aspects of what I call “conscientiousness”; intelligence, with high ability in both “alpha” and “beta” fields, and therefore versatility. To name a more specific ability: writing clear and understandable text. Many other strengths could be named that are inherent to the already mentioned, such as humour and being able to deal with double functions, which – double functions – create multiple levels of meaning and synergy in a work.


How do you handle stress/pressure?

I aim to handle stress in a rational way and avoid giving emotional responses to it. It is not possible to avoid stress altogether. Examples of methods to deal with stress are “counting to ten”, or using the cause of a particular instance of stress to one’s benefit, for instance by writing about it in a story or article. It also helps to formalize one’s response to particular stressors, so that one can handle each occurrence of them without being affected.


What do you define as genius and intelligent with regards to personality?

In terms of personality, genius is the high end of creativity, and creativity in turn is a synergy of conscientiousness, ability, and associative horizon. There exists also another type of definition of genius, which says a genius is someone who makes a lasting contribution in any field, but that is of course an “after the fact” definition. Two of the three elements in my definition are related to psychiatric disorders; conscientiousness to neurosis, associative horizon to psychosis. The trick is to have exactly the right amounts of those, so that you stay just below the threshold where you would have a debilitating neurotic or psychotic illness.

Intelligence, when that term is used in relation to human personality, is the cognitive aspect of personality, the aspect that comprises mental ability. The word “intelligence” is unfortunately often used in a number of other meanings too, so that is it not usable in scientific contexts; the best term for it is probably “g”, the general factor in mental ability. In the above definition of genius, intelligence would belong to the ability element.


What is your greatest annoyance with people?

A number of annoyances could be named, but since only the single greatest one is asked for, I would say bully nature. Some people have the inclination to, when confronted with someone who is good, pure, and innocent, hurt that person as much as they can. They are simply intolerant of good and are compelled to destroy it. It may be physical violence on one end of the scale, or it may be highly refined forms of psychological torture disguised as kindness. But make no mistake; the goal of the bully is always the death of the bullied.

9. What do you consider the main personality traits to have in a person for a better world?

High conscientiousness (including ethics, in my definition) and high mental ability are the main traits needed for a better world. All other positive traits that people often cite in this context will follow, being intrinsically related to these.


Do you believe in aliens and extra-terrestrial life?

Yes, I believe extraterrestrial aliens exist. Whether they have visited Earth is a different matter. I think that would be known worldwide instantly, and not possible to cover up. I also think the vast majority of civilizations in the universe are at a lower level than current human civilization (but those smart enough to travel here would be at a higher level, naturally). I have estimated the average I.Q. of civilizations in the universe at about 80. When rising far above that, forces of a decadent-degenerative nature become active that pull society back toward that more primitive level. This can be observed throughout the history of Earth humans – all civilizations have fallen so far – and it seems reasonable to assume it will be no different on other planets. The development of civilization is not a straight upward line, but is discontinuous in time and space. While theoretically some civilization somewhere in the universe could reach the point where interstellar travel becomes feasible, we have not seen that yet, and it is not a priori certain that such is possible at all. In any case it is very naive to think that the current rate of technological improvement in our civilization will always continue.


What quality do you value most in your friends both male and female?

Being able to communicate rationally and verbally, being able to understand clear intelligible language and not reading between the lines when there is nothing there.


What is your current state of mind?

My current state of mind is a productive one as I am enthusiastically working on something. While creative work is much of the time a painful process and a struggle, it also gives energy and has an anti-depressant effect.

13. What do you get complimented most about?

About my tests, in the sense that people notify me of having derived large quantities of enjoyment from taking them, and about the articles on my web locations, which some say have helped them greatly.


What is your greatest joy?

My greatest joy is in making things and in learning things that have not been known before. There is no greater sensation than the realization of just having created a masterpiece that will withstand the ages and grab people by the throat even centuries from now, or acquiring insight into some pattern, connection, or causal mechanism that had been hitherto overlooked.


If you had one personal wish (which you alone can benefit from hence world peace, etc not applicable) what would it be?

Technically I cannot answer this, since anything I can think of that would benefit me would inevitably also benefit humanity on the whole, which is disallowed by the question. But what comes closest is probably to stay in good health for as long as possible, preferably forever, as in not dying.

Human Cloning

Human embryo cloning begins with a standard In vitro fertilization process (IVF). Sperm and an egg cell are mixed together on a glass dish. After conception, the zygote (fertilized egg) is permitted to advance into a blastula (a hollow mass of cells). The zygote divides first into two cells, then four, then eight- in that sequence. A chemical is added to the dish to take away the “zona pellucida” covering. This material delivers nutrients to the cells to support cell division. With the covering removed, the blastula is divided into separate cells which are placed on distinct dishes.


At that point they are layered with an artificial “zona pellucida” and allowed to divide as well as mature. The experiment by Sillman et al. demonstrated that the best outcomes could be acquired by interfering with the zygote at the two cell stage. Various pairs of zygotes were each able to develop to the 32 cell stage but delayed at that point. They could have had the potential to change further then even settle into a viable fetus, excluding the fact that the original ovum was flawed and would have died anyway. For principled reasons, the researchers had selected embryos which had no probability of ever maturing into fetuses and therefore becoming newborn babies.

A new stem cell discovery in 2013 has resuscitated controversy about human cloning. The parallels between the animal-cloning procedure and the new human one have triggered this concern. However, technical challenges denote that scientists are far-off from being able to produce human babies. The scientists in the study attempted to treat diseases of the cell’s powerhouse: the mitochondria and to refine the technique. This was the same one used in 1996 to create the cloned sheep Dolly. The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) promptly delivered a statement condemning the investigation. This was indicated both by virtue of those embryos that were destroyed in the research development and over the distress that the full reproductive cloning of humans is likely. “They or others may be close to being able to develop cloned human embryos to the fetal stage and then beyond,” alleged Richard Doerflinger, the associate director of USCCB’s Secretariat of Pro-Life Activities.

According to an ethical debate about human cloning, John Gearhart, the director of the Institute for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, stated “Nobody in their right mind would want to do that”. This meant the scientific creation of human children.

When I asked Paul Cooijmans his views on human cloning, he declared, “My opinion so far is that cloning, when technically possible, should be used to reproduce geniuses (their genetic material should be stored for that purpose now already). This would be good because cloning is the only way to retain a precise genetic configuration, and the genetic configuration of genius gets lost in normal sexual procreation (children of geniuses are mostly not geniuses).The idea is that genius rests on so-called “configural inheritance”, so on a precise synergistic configuration of genes; if only one thereof is missing, it does not work. This has to do with “epistasis” (a gene influencing the expression of another gene). Hans Eysenck for instance writes about that in his book “Genius”. For everyone else, cloning is not the way to go, and sexual procreation is better. An alternative for cloning would be to produce very many children, like a hundred or more, of a genius via gamete donation and sexual procreation, hoping there would be one new genius among them. I have no religious objections to cloning. I do think it would be bizarre to clone other than only exceptional people, for it would mean a genetic standstill. I am an atheist”.

Cloning of embryos has been utilized in rodent experiments since the late 1970’s, and in animal rearing since the late 1980’s. The practice tears a single fertilized ovum into two or more clones, each of which is then implanted into the womb of an interested female.

On the other hand, exploration into cloning of human embryos has been limited in the United States and in some other countries. Pro-life assemblies which are in conflict with free access to abortion have had considerable governmental influence. All human embryo research was forbidden by the Regan and Bush Presidencies throughout most of the 1980’s in addition to into the early 1990’s. During the first few days of President Clinton’s presidency, the prohibition on public funding of human embryo and fetal research was raised.

Evidently, it may not be known who is the global citizen or team that first performed cloning of human embryos. The techniques utilized have been implicit for many years as they duplicated embryos in livestock and sheep. It is possible that somebody had efficaciously used the scheme on a human embryo secretly. The first publicly broadcasted human cloning was completed by Robert J. Stillman and his squad at the George Washington Medical Center in Washington D.C. They picked up 17 genetically damaged human embryos which would have died within days even if they were treated. They were gathered from an ovum that had been fertilized by two sperm cells. As a consequence, an additional set of chromosomes doomed the ovum’s future. It was seen that not one could have advanced into a fetus. These ovum were successfully split in 1994-OCT, all generating one or more clones. The main intention of the experimentation appears to have activated public dispute on the ethics of human cloning.

Certain scientists trust that embryo cloning and associated research is moral. From their chosen viewpoint, this may ultimately bring about very positive results such as:-

i.         A better understanding of the reasons of miscarriages; this might introduce treatment to avoid unprompted abortions. Consequently, this would be of immense support for women who cannot bring a fetus to the span.

ii.         It might lead to the comprehension of the mechanisms by which a Morula (a mass of cells that has developed from a blastula) fastens itself. This has the capacity to generate new and actual contraceptives that reveal very few side effects.

iii.         The rapid progression of the human morula is comparable to the rate at which cancer cells propagate. Cancer researchers have confidence in the notion that if a system is found to end the division of a human ovum, then a technique for terminating the growth of a cancer might also be created.

Several individuals and groups have voiced trepidations about adverse effects of embryo cloning in humans and continue to question its morality. The following have been taken into consideration:-

  1. When the gene or genes that determine sexual orientation are located, cloning may perhaps similarly be approved to eliminate zygotes of a particular sexual orientation.
  2. A country might fund a program like in Nazi Germany where humans were bred to make the most of certain traits. As soon as the “perfect human” was technologically advanced, embryo cloning could be used to reproduce that creature and imaginably produce unlimited quantities of clones. The identical approach could be operated to generate a “genetic underclass” for exploitation: e.g. persons with sub-normal intelligence and above normal strength.
  3. There is constantly the likelihood of harming or killing embryos. Most pro-life supporters accept as true that an embryo is a human being. For the period of embryo cloning, they would be exposed to assault with the risk of being murdered. They also have deliberated that the embryos would be treated as a product to be exploited, not as a person.

Moreover, the fear exists that a scientist could possibly produce armies of warriors or even large quantities of manual workers.  A “black market” of fetuses could transpire from favored donors that would desire to be able to clone themselves. These various people include sportspersons, film stars, technologists and others. In conclusion, there are many questions that exist in today’s globe with regards to the cloning of humans. Some are,

  1. What are some of the social challenges a cloned child might face?
  2. Do the benefits of human cloning outweigh the costs of human dignity?
  3. Should cloning research be regulated? How, and by whom?

Quantum Computing in 2013

The introduction of classical computing brought the languages of classical physics (electricity and magnetism) and joined it into a new assembly of people in the future called computer scientists. Comparable to most technologies, classical computers like ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) began under the purview of engineers and progressed to a shared services setting (where businesses could purchase time on the computer). With the assistance of a common simplified language and operational contexts, traditional computing moved from the scientific/government dominion to usage by large enterprises, in anticipation of what could be considered general availability for both content (data and program) inventors and content consumers.

The commencement of the simplified language for classical computing was the description of the bit, the smallest of information illustration. The bit was a language of abstraction, a representation of electrical and/or magnetic physical properties. The bit was zero while voltage was off and one when voltage was applied. Bits are usually used to symbolize data or commands. In order to create commands, voltages were combined using various methods called gates (AND, OR, NAND and COPY making up the complete classical set). These were physical representations (i.e., combinations of voltages) of logic command arrangements to integrate bits in different ways.

As programming advanced in this evolutionary sequence, not only were certain objects on lower foundation layers abstracted, but innovative languages of representation were produced. Nowadays it is innocuous to assume that a Java programmer who utilizes an object oriented program does not distress himself with how the bits are flipped.1


When I interviewed Dr. Vinton “Vint” Cerf, I asked him, “What are your views or view on quantum computing in today’s world in comparison to classical computers?”


He stated,” Quantum computing (see also D-Wave web site) has the promise of getting answers much faster FOR CERTAIN KINDS OF PROBLEMS than conventional computing. It is not a general purpose method, however, and is extremely sensitive to maintaining entanglement coherence for long enough for the computation to be performed. It appears to have application for factoring and for optimization (e.g. traveling salesman problem). Computing is becoming a key element of everyday life, especially in conjunction with mobiles – together they harness the power of the Internet, World Wide Web and cloud computing from virtually anywhere on the globe. I am very excited about the “internet of things” and also about computers that hear and see and can be part of the traditional human dialog. I like the idea of being able to have a conversation with a search engine or a discussion with a control system. Of course, Google Glass and Google self-driving cars are capturing attention where ever one goes. I am also quite excited about the extension of the Internet to interplanetary operation, as you may discover if you google “interplanetary internet”.

The Quantum Computer is a computer that connects the power of atoms and molecules to accomplish memory and processing tasks. It has the potential to perform particular calculations billions of times quicker than any silicon-constructed computer. The field of Quantum Computing was first introduced in 1980 and 1981.

The classical desktop computer functions by manipulating bits, digits that are binary — i.e., which can either signify a zero or a one. Everything from statistics and letters to the status of the modem or computer mouse are all expressed by an accumulation of bits in combinations of ones and zeros. These bits correspond very well with the approach classical physics represents the globe. Quantum computers are not restricted by the binary nature of the classical physical world. Nonetheless, they rely upon inspecting the condition of quantum bits or qubits that might represent a one or a zero, might appear as a combination of the two or might exhibit a number conveying that the state of the qubit is somewhere between 1 and 0.

With regards to the classical model of a computer, the most essential building block – the bit, can only occur in one of two distinct states, a ‘0’ or a ‘1’. In a quantum computer the procedures are altered. Not only is the qubit capable of remaining in the classical ‘0’ and ‘1’ states, but it can also be in a superposition of both. In this coherent state, the bit exists as a ‘0’ and a ‘1’ in a particular manner. If an individual considers a register of three classical bits: it would be attainable to use this register to represent any one of the numbers from 0 to 7 at any one time. If a register of three qubits is deliberated, it can be observed that if each bit is in the superposition or coherent state, the register can represent all the numbers from 0 to 7 simultaneously.

A processor that can utilize registers of qubits will basically have the ability to perform calculations applying all the likely values of the input registers simultaneously. This phenomenon is known as quantum parallelism, and is the inspiring force concerning the research which is presently being carried out out in quantum computing.

Quantum computers are beneficial in the way they encode a bit, the vital unit of information. A number – 0 or 1, stipulates the state of a bit in a classical digital computer. An n-bit binary word in a regular computer is for that reason described by a string of n zeros and ones. A qubit may be represented by an atom in one of two unalike states, which can also be indicated as 0 or 1. Two qubits, like two classical bits, can reach four different well-defined states (0 and 0, 0 and 1, 1 and 0, or 1 and 1).

On the other hand, in contrasting classical bits, qubits can be existent simultaneously as 0 and 1, with the likelihood for each state given by a numerical coefficient. Revealing a two-qubit quantum computer demands four coefficients. As a general rule, n qubits demand 2n numbers, which speedily become a sizeable set for greater values of n. By way of example, if n equals 50, about 1050 numbers are necessary to describe all the probabilities for the possible states of the quantum machine-a number that surpasses the capacity of the largest conventional computer. A quantum computer gives the assurance that it will be impressively powerful because it can be in superposition and can act on all its potential states simultaneously. As a result, this sort of computer could unsurprisingly accomplish myriad tasks in parallel, using merely a single processing unit.

Quantum Computing is the skill of utilizing all of the prospects that the laws of quantum mechanics offer humans to solve computational problems. Conventional or “Classical” computers only use a minor subset of these possibilities. In principle, they calculate in the same way that people compute by hand. There are numerous outcomes about the wonderful things humanity would be able to do if there was a sufficiently large quantum computer. The utmost significant of these is that we would be able to perform simulations of quantum mechanical procedures in chemistry, biology and physics which will never come within the range of classical computers.3


This figure demonstrates the Bloch sphere which is a depiction of a Qubit, the fundamental building block of quantum computers.

Both practical and theoretical study continues and a number of national government and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to improve quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, for example cryptanalysis.

There exist a number of quantum computing models, distinguished by the main features in which the computation is determined. The four central versions of practical significance are:

  1. One-way quantum computer (computation divided into sequence of one-qubit measurements applied to an extremely entangled early state or cluster state)
  2. Quantum gate array (computation divided into sequence of few-qubit quantum gates)
  3. Adiabatic quantum computer or computer based on Quantum annealing (computation distributed into an unhurried constant conversion of an initial Hamiltonian into a final Hamiltonian, whose ground states comprises of the solution)
  4. Topological quantum computer (computation divided into the braiding of anyons in a 2D lattice)

The Quantum Turing machine is theoretically meaningful but direct implementation of this model is not pursued. The four models of computation have been revealed to be equal to each other in the sense that each one can simulate the other with no more than polynomial overhead.

In Modern Day, there has been a great level of controversy about the world’s only commercial quantum computer. The concern with this machine is that there has been an issue in deciphering whether it is truly a quantum device or just a regular computer. The Canadian software company D-Wave created this technological device which has been verified to work on a quantum level.

Unlike a common computer, this kind that is named an “Annealer”, cannot answer any query tossed at it. As an alternative, it can only answer ‘discrete optimization’ problems. This is the sort of issue where a set of criteria are all struggling to be met at the same time and there is one best resolution that meets the most of them. One sample is being the simulation of protein folding, in which the arrangement seeks a state of minimal free energy. The hope is that a quantum annealer should be able to solve these problems much quicker than a classical one.

Professor Scott Aaronson, a theoretical computer scientist at MIT has historically been skeptical of D-Wave’s assertions. He stated in the past that he is fairly persuaded by the data but that there are plenty of important questions remaining. These include whether the current or future versions of the D-Wave computer will truly be any faster than classical machines.

An Australian crew led by researchers at the University of New South Wales has accomplished a breakthrough in quantum science that brings the prospect of a network of ultra-powerful quantum computers that are joined via a quantum internet, closer to reality. The team is the first to have discovered the spin, or quantum state, of a single atom using a combined optical and electrical approach. The study is a group effort between investigators from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology based at UNSW, the Australian National University and the University of Melbourne.

UNSW’s Professor Sven Rogge alleged that the technical feat was done with a single atom of erbium – an unusual earth element normally used in communications that is embedded in silicon. “We have the best of both worlds with our combination of an electrical and optical system. This is a revolutionary new technique, and people had doubts it was possible. It is the first step towards a global quantum internet,” Professor Rogge indicated.

Quantum computers guarantee to provide an exponential increase in processing power over conventional computers by using a single electron or nucleus of an atom as the basic processing unit – the qubit. By carrying out multiple calculations simultaneously, quantum computers are projected to have applications in economic modeling, quick database searches, modeling of quantum materials and biological molecules as well as drugs, in addition to encryption and decryption of information.


In Quantum Computing, information is stored in quantum bits, or qubits. A qubit can be in states labeled |0} and |1}, but it can also be in a superposition of these states, a|0} + b|1}, where a and b are complex numbers. If the state of a qubit is viewed as a vector, then superposition of states is just vector addition. For every extra qubit you get, you can store twice as many numbers. For example, with 3 qubits, you get coefficients for |000}, |001}, |010}, |011}, |100}, |101}, |110} and |111}. In addition to this, calculations are performed by unitary transformations on the state of the qubits. United with the principle of superposition, this generates possibilities that are not available for hand calculations (as in the QNOT). This translates into more efficient algorithms for a.o. factoring, searching and simulation of quantum mechanical systems. The QNOT-The classical NOT-gate flips its input bit over; NOT(1)=0, NOT(0)=1.The quantum analogue, the QNOT also does this, but it flips all states in a superposition at the same time. So if we start with 3 qubits in the state |000}+|001}+2|010}-|011}-|100}+3i|101}+7|110} and apply QNOT to the first qubit,we get|100}+|101}+2|110}-|111}-|000}+3i|001}+7|010}. Furthermore, the quantum computer is different due to Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation.

The quantum property of entanglement has a fascinating history. Einstein, who claimed that “God does not play dice with the universe”, utilized the property of entanglement in 1935 in an attempt to ascertain that quantum theory was unfinished. Boris Podolski, Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen identified that the state vectors of certain quantum systems were associated or “entangled” with each other. If one modifies the state vector of one system, the corresponding state vector of the other system is changed instantaneously also, and independently of the medium through which some communicating signals ought to travel. Since nothing could move faster than the speed of light, how could one system arbitrarily far apart have an impact on the other? Einstein termed this “spooky action at a distance” and it demanded a philosophy of reality contrary to science in those years. He favored the notion that some unfamiliar or “hidden variables” were enhancing the results and since they weren’t known, then quantum theory must be imperfect.

In 1964, John Bell evidenced that there could not conceivably be any hidden variables, which implied that spooky action at a distance was factual. Later in 1982, Alan Aspect performed an investigation in which he displayed that Bells’ Theorem, as it was known as, had experimental validity. Either faster-than-light speed communication was occurring or some other mechanism was in process. This basic theory has made all the modification between traditional ideas of reality and quantum ideas of reality.

Throughout all of history before, all physical phenomena were reliant on some force and some particle to transport that force. Therefore, the speed of light restriction applied. For example, as electrostatic forces are carried by the electron, gravitational forces are carried by the graviton, etc. Though, with entanglement, quantum systems are connected in some manner that does not contain a force and the speed of light restriction does not apply. The real mechanism of how one system affects the other is still unknown.


1. Collapse of the State Vector

When two quantum systems are generated while maintaining some property, their state vectors are correlated or entangled. For example, when two photons are created and their spin conserved, as an essential, one photon has a spin of 1 and a spin of -1. Through measuring one of the state vectors of the photon, the state vector falls into an intelligible state. Instantaneously and robotically, the state vector of the other photon collapses into the other identifiable state. When one photon’s spin is measured and found to be 1, the other photon’s spin of -1 immediately becomes recognized as well. There are no forces involved and no description of the mechanism.

2. Quantum Teleportation

The code of entanglement enables a phenomenon termed “quantum teleportation”. This type of teleportation does not include moving an entity from one physical position to another, as shown in popular science fiction stories, but a disintegration of the original and recreation of a matching duplicate at another location.

3. Brassard’s Theoretical Circuit

In 1996, Gilles Brassard visualized a quantum circuit that could build and entangle two pairs of qubits, where one is entangled with two others. On the whole, “Alice’s” circuit entangles three bits (M, A, and B), and communicates M to “Bob”. Bob’s circuit, using information from M, produces a replica of bit B. The prompt result on B, by measuring M, is efficiently a teleportation of qubit B.

For purposes of debate and at the risk of underestimation, the gates marked L, R, S, and T, are referred to as left-rotation, right-rotation, forward-phase shift, and backward-phase shift gates, separately. The XOR gate is presented as a circumscribed cross. These gates can bring about entanglement when qubits are put through them.

Alternatively, classical computers differ to quantum computers as information is stored in bits, which take the discrete values 0 and 1. If storing one number takes 64 bits, then storing N numbers takes N times 64 bits. Calculations are done essentially in the same way as by hand. As a result, the group of problems that can be solved proficiently is the same as the category that can be solved efficiently by hand. Here “efficiently”, deals with the idea that the evaluation period doesn’t grow too quickly with the size of the input.

Applications that cannot be done now are easily possible with quantum computers. The spin-off concepts, like quantum teleportation, open outlooks only imagined before. To conclude, quantum computers are approaching in their maturity, and they will require a new way of looking at computing.

New Battery Technology


In a world of developing technology, every enthusiast loves it whenever a new gadget is invented. Has the average user ever noticed or observed how tacky and bothersome it is when the battery of the cell phone loses power in a short period of time? By way of example, what if you were in the middle of an important conversation concerning business or anything which is considered to be significant from the perspective of a particular customer? Then suddenly the phone no longer functions until it is able to be recharged again which becomes an inconvenience. Currently, there is a new upgrade in the battery sector as the new lithium-ion battery design has been created. This product is 2,000 times more powerful and recharges 1,000 times faster when compared to other batteries. As stated by the scientists, this is not merely an evolutionary stage in battery tech, “It’s a new enabling technology… it breaks the normal paradigms of energy sources. It’s allowing us to do different, new things.”  The old, bulky lithium-ion battery has finally been updated with enough power to boost a car battery and still restore in seconds.

So how does this sort of power relate to real-world scenarios? The batteries could, in theory, broadcast radio signals 30 times farther than normal and allow devices to be about 30 times smaller. The fact that the microbatteries will recharge 1,000 times faster than existing technologies makes this product highly extraordinary. This denotes that devices could be powered for days and recharge in seconds. William P. King utilises medical devices and implants as an illustration declaring, “Where the battery is an enormous brick, and it’s connected to itty-bitty electronics and tiny wires. Now the battery is also tiny.” Many global citizens share the perspective in life that if something is bigger that this connotes that it would be more beneficial to the consumer. However in scenarios like this, the trend of thought alters as this battery demonstrates that these small devices are quite favorable and delightful.

Presently, technology generally is objectively limited by battery technology, particularly when it deals with medicine. There are several types of hearing aid batteries, categorized by size and color coding. The size of battery desired will depend on the particular type and model of the hearing aid. Most hearing aids use one of five standard button cell battery sizes, each represented by a color code. Cochlear implant hearing aids are used for those with significant hearing loss to deafness. Batteries for these hearing aids are made from zinc. They are typically 1.45 volts, which allows them to last longer and be changed less frequently. However, a miniature battery such as the lithium-ion battery will allow programmers to create tablets that can easily be held in one hand for any amount of time and laptops that wouldn’t be difficult to hold due to their heavy weight. Additionally, the new battery is less prone to fire hazards because of its capability to function within a wider temperature range and better manage its internal temperature modifications. It can be used for boats, for accommodation and grid storage, as well as plug-in vehicles, which are subject to a “large and growing sales pipeline.”

It is an incredible fact that advances in battery technology may one day help to solve the global energy crisis. The improvements that are being made in battery technology are quite “mind baffling” for those that are unaware of how it is done. These devices are collecting power from about every source that is imaginable and at the present there is battery technology from researchers who work at various universities across the globe. From cell phones to cars and all in between, there may sooner or later be nothing more required than to actually use the device.  So although, the technology behind the lithium-ion battery has not yet entirely reached maturity, the batteries are the type of choice in many consumer electronics.  They also have one of the best energy-to-mass ratios and a very slow loss of charge when not in use.

Technology Updates

“Machines take me by surprise with great frequency”. – Alan Turing

Cheers to Gordon Moore’s Law which describes a driving force of technological and social change in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Computers are still evolving at an amazing speed and PC as well as laptop accessories seem to grow at the same rate. G TECHNOLOGY announced its latest gadget in the Computing World and Creative Professional Market called the G-Drive Pro. It is a high performance storage solution featuring screaming fast USB 3.0 and FireWire® interfaces. A product like this would come in handy in today’s world because it delivers flexible and extreme-performance storage for the Thunderbolt-enabled computer. Over the years, everyone has owned or had access to various brands of computers such as Hewlett-Packard, Alienware, Apple and Toshiba (just to name a few) for purposes such as communication or leisure. Evidently, the computers are changing as each software company upgrades their products on a yearly basis so that customers can enjoy these latest devices in technology. Imagine a world without computers such as in the Middle Ages and automatically there is a vision of a sluggish, draconian place for those who live in modern day society for the advancement of technology.

This upgrade in equipment is a new storage solution which is designed chiefly for photographers and film-makers. Capacity and performance requirements to support 2K, 4K and other media formats differ by camera and supported media formats, as well as related pixel sizes, frame rates, compressed or uncompressed media, depths and color models. The G-DOCK ev with Thunderbolt, the G-DRIVE ev and G-DRIVE ev PLUS external hard drive modules with USB 3.0 together deliver quick content transfers for camerawork, 2K and 4K¹ digital cinema assignments with simple storage expansion. The G-DOCK ev with Thunderbolt is the only two-bay solution with interchangeable and rugged storage modules that have the adjustability to be taken into the field and used as true standalone external drives.

At this point currently, new high-resolution media formats and related files sizes do require massive amounts of storage space in addition to ever faster data transfer rates so that one can efficiently edit and distribute content throughout the workflow without being inefficient. If one were to take a look at the statistics, it would be astounding. Take for example, an uncompressed 2K digital video format, which alone will take up more than one terabyte (1TB) each hour, and will require just about 305 megabytes per second (MB/s) sustained throughput for smooth editing without experiencing any kind of dropped frames. Such high-resolution video formats, alongside the increasing popularity of higher megapixel DSLR cameras which are used to capture professional 2K video has served up a need for a new high-performance storage solution that will be able to cater to the requirements of nowadays’ digital content creators.

Patience is a valuable virtue but everyone likes products that work smoothly and quicker in the context of Computing. It would be a nauseating experience to use a retrograde gadget that doesn’t serve any purpose and does not operate properly. If firstly, the appearance of your external hard drive as much as its performance is treasured, and secondly, works greatly on 2K or 4K video editing, then G-Technology’s G-DRIVE PRO with Thunderbolt would be appealing to enthusiasts. It connects a single 3.5-inch hard drive with the intensely fast Thunderbolt technology to offer sustained data transfer rates of up to 480MB/s, while still giving the high capacity storage of up to 4TB.

For those fiddling with high resolution videos, it is most likely pleasing to know that this gleaming invention certainly supports compressed 4K and multiple streams of 2K, HDV, DVCPro HD, XDCAM HD, ProRes 4444 as well as uncompressed SD workflows. The forthcoming summer is awaiting entertainment with this state-of-the-art device which will be available through G-Technology and its Premier Channel Partners. The cost is $699.95 and $849.95 for the 2TB and 4TB model, separately. With up to 4TB capacity, the G-DRIVE PRO with Thunderbolt is Mac-formatted and is Apple Time Machine ready.

Photographers and film-makers who desire to get a head-start on making 4K content (or 2K videos that the next-generation of DSLRs should be capable of) will be particularly interested in the G-Drive Pro with Thunderbolt. Introduced today at 480 MBps, it has the fastest read-write speed of all the G-Tech hard drives, which means one drive can support 1TB of unedited 2K content (it has a need for a 305 MBps data transfer). If the user wishes to make full use of the Thunderbolt’s read-write speed of 750 MBps, he or she can daisy-chain two G-Drive Pros together to give an enormous 960 MBps, which is just quick enough to accurately handle unedited 4K videos.

The Product Highlights are:-

  • eSATA, FireWire 400/800, USB 2.0
  • High-performance 7200rpm Drive Speed
  • Up to 64 MB Cache
  • Data Transfer Rates up to 100 MB/s
  • Ideal for Audio/Video/Photo Applications
  • Stylish, Industrial Aluminum Enclosure
  • Mac Formatted and Time Machine Ready
  • Mac and Windows Compatible
  • Stylish, industrial design features an integrated heat-sink for near-silent operation
  • Pre-formatted for Mac but works equally as well with Windows based systems
  • Includes an industry-leading three year limited warranty

A summary of its Kit Contents are:

G-DRIVE PRO External Hard Drive

(1) Thunderbolt Cable

Universal AC Power Supply

Quick Start Guide

3-Year Limited Warranty


MSRP: 2TB – $699.95

4TB – $849.95


Dimensions: 2.68″ x 9.25″ x 5.12″ / 68 x 235 x 130mm

Weight: 3.13 lbs / 1.42 kg


Storage Capacity: 2TB , 4TB

Drive Speed: 7200 RPM



Mac® OS® 10.7


2x Thunderbolt

Award-winning director, producer and photographer Vincent Laforet, one of the world’s leading adventure photographers Lucas Gilman and Vienna-based award-winning filmmaker, director of photography as well as film producer Nino Leitner are all supporters of G-Technology. They hosted in-booth workshops (G-Technology Booth #SL12105), showcasing and discussing their artistic approaches, gear and workflows. G-Technology makes the workflow simpler, improved and faster.  Its commitments include transporting, editing, distributing and storing content. G-Technology’s high-performance portable and desktop drives, flexible transfer/edit solutions and fast RAID systems are all manufactured for professional content creation environments where performance and reliability are paramount. Due to the fact that G-Technology has a reputation for the uppermost standards, its products can be found in open post-production facilities worldwide.

It is understood that it is factual to state that storage capacity needs to increase every day. This is because humans get faster internet connections allowing them to download enormous chunks of data from the Internet in astonishingly small periods of time. G-Technology storage solutions are engineered precisely to meet the necessities of the content creation and Apple Mac communities. This includes heavy users of multimedia content, Final Cut Pro® and Adobe® Premiere® Pro audio/video specialists along with other pre/post production professionals.





The New Age of Computing

“In attempting to construct such (artificially intelligent) machines we should not be irreverently usurping His (God’s) power of creating souls, any more than we are in the procreation of children. RRather we are, in either case, instruments of His will providing mansions for the souls that He creates.” ― Alan Turing

As Windows 8 launched last year, a great deal of hybrid notebooks that are created to benefit from the touch-optimized operating system started to appear in the computing market. Evidently, it appears that the trend will definitely continue well in 2013. The new HP Envy x2 is one of the products which was first presented at CES 2013 back in January and has made its way across the globe earlier this month.

With its smooth metallic colorway, the HP Envy x2’s physical design suits its purpose as an invention under the corporation’s Envy premium series. With a hybrid design that enables it to perform as a tablet as well as a normal notebook when attached to its keyboard, the Envy x2 is equipped with an 11.6-inch IPS touch display with a graphics resolution of 1366×768 and supports up to 5 simultaneous touch points.


When I interviewed Professor Leonard Adleman, I asked him generally “What motivates you?”

He stated, “I am motivated by the beauty of mathematics.”

When I reviewed this product currently in the market I thought in terms of Applied Mathematics that it was epic for mathematicians that work on practical problems. Most people in one way or the other know how to calculate things whether they are young individuals or in their elderly years. By way of example, whenever someone purchases or sells an item of any sort, he or she utilizes the logical part of the brain as well as its reasoning ability to function in the activity.

In a scenario where a software company desires to have a feasibility study which entails a report that purposes to detail the characteristics that will determine the success or failure of a project, the following is significant to note. The various elements that constitute system requirements are necessary to be looked at and thoroughly assessed. HP Envy x2 is a suitable product to utilize in a situation where there is a ‘High Tech Restaurant & Bar’ which needs a technological upgrade of the establishment. Clearly, in order for any business to operate efficiently on a daily or weekly basis, there are certain individuals that are involved in this process. These persons include:-

  1. The end-users: The prospective users would comprise of: – the chef, possibly kitchen staff, waiters, bartenders, managers and the accounting staff.
  2. The managers: The management of the client comprises of the manager of the kitchen staff and the serving staff.
  3. Indirect beneficiaries: The customers of the client, both average and business are indirectly affected by the system.
  4. Maintenance and Support People: Any Software Development Company and its technical staff will continue to serve and support this system launch for the client.
  5. Regulators and standards people: This includes a Systems Auditor.


Furthermore, it is critical that there are techniques of Elicitation such as:-

  1. Interviews: Business data, business practices, business goals, technical information and skill levels of users can best be extracted by the method of interviewing.
  2. Observation: Physical environment, business practices, skill levels of users and interfaces with other systems are all best obtained through this process.
  3. Scenarios or walkthroughs: Technical information and business practices are best attained through this way.
  4. Questionnaires: These are best used when gathering business data even though they are not always 100% correct.
  5. Brainstorming: This is good for understanding what the clients’ preferences are.


If a Software Development Company has decided to use the Spiral Model of RE to dictate the different stages to be used, then it would be wise to implement a system where each table in the ‘High Tech Restaurant & Bar’ has this product for the use of the customers. The sequence of stages include:-

Quadrant 1: Information gathering makes use of the aforementioned elicitation techniques and provides an understanding of what is to be built.

Quadrant 2: Analysis and modeling is the pulling together of data from elicitation to determine whether additional information is needed.

Quadrant 3: The purpose of feasibility is to decipher the success of the project. This stage is fundamental.

Quadrant 4: The feasibility document is presented to the stakeholders for validation of the requirements’ specification.

In the technological upgrade of such an establishment would require this sequence of stages as in the case of the product HP Envy x2.



The output of Requirements Engineering would be constructed as a contractual agreement. This agreement would consist of the client having specified their needs and how the Software Company would achieve it. The Systems Specification document would comprise of the requirements needed by the designer. The Evolutionary model should be used to construct a product as mentioned before to meet the needs of the client. This feasibility assessment has been conducted to confirm the practicality of this system upgrade.


From my perspective, this is a new endeavor. Based on case studies, it can be done. With the upgrading of the network, installation of hardware and software as well as proper training, the solution to the client is viable.

With the results from Elicitation, the upgrade in ‘High Tech Restaurant & Bar’ in its data processing and other services is feasible.

Given that the software company is creating an additive to the current system, the input information required already exists. In order for this upgrade to be successful, new hardware and software would need to be purchased and changes would have to be made to the existing. Despite the intricacies of this project, it can be delivered in accordance to a detailed project plan. Training of users, changes in the hardware and practicing of safety procedures would eradicate possible dependencies. As a result, the arrangement would be used at its fullest potential.

Technology, Time and Ageing

The question that many polymaths, scientists, technology-enthusiasts and intellectuals have been curious about ever since educational institutions were introduced is- will the world reach the period where the length of human life can be expanded? Many individuals in the global society have wished to look younger when their facial characteristics started aging and do surgical procedures as well as use cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype to fulfill their desires. Technology has extended the phenotype of man to unprecedented heights. Human technologies differ from animal technologies in their inventiveness, multiplicity and sophistication. Noted experts throughout the ages have searched for the formula to the miraculous phenomenon: “Can one turn back the clock of time?” Although time travel has been a traditional plot device in science fiction since the late 19th century and the theories of special and general relativity allow methods for forms of one-way travel into the future via time dilation, it is currently unrevealed whether the laws of physics would permit time travel into the past.

Some theories, most notably special and general relativity, propose that suitable geometries of spacetime, or specific types of motion in space, might allow time travel into the past and future if these geometries or motions are possible. In technical papers, physicists generally avoid the commonplace language of “moving” or “traveling” through time (“movement” normally refers only to an adjustment in spatial position as the time coordinate is varied), and instead discuss the potentiality of closed timelike curves, which are world lines that form closed loops in spacetime, allowing objects to return to their own past. There are known to be solutions to the equations of general relativity that describe spacetimes which contain closed timelike curves (such as Gödel spacetime), but the physical plausibility of these solutions is uncertain.

Many in the scientific community believe that backwards time travel is highly implausible. Any theory that would allow time travel would require that problems of causality be resolved. The classic example of a problem involving causality is the “grandfather paradox”: what if one were to go back in time and kill one’s own grandfather before one’s father was conceived? However, some scientists believe that paradoxes can be avoided, by appealing either to the Novikov self-consistency principle or to the notion of branching parallel universes.

Nevertheless, the theory of general relativity does suggest a scientific basis for the possibility of backwards time travel in certain unusual scenarios, although arguments from semiclassical gravity suggest that when quantum effects are incorporated into general relativity, these loopholes may be closed. These semiclassical arguments led theoretical physicists to formulate the chronology protection conjecture, suggesting that the fundamental laws of nature prevent time travel, but physicists cannot come to a definite judgment on the issue without a theory of quantum gravity to join quantum mechanics and general relativity into a completely unified theory.

Dr. Bill Andrews has spent two decades solving the molecular mechanisms of aging. His mission is to extend the human life span to 150 years or die trying. In the 1990s, as the director of molecular biology at the Bay Area biotech firm Geron, Andrews supported a team of researchers that, in alliance with a laboratory at the University of Colorado, just barely beat out the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in a furious, near-decade-long race to identify the human telomerase gene. This basic science took on the trappings of a hysterical Great Race is a testament to the biological preciousness of telomerase, an enzyme that maintains the ends of our cells’ chromosomes, called telomeres.

Telomeres get shorter each time a cell divides, and when they get too short the cell can no longer make fresh copies of itself. If humans live long enough, the tissues and organ systems that count on continued cell replication begin to falter: The skin sags, the internal organs grow slack, the immune-system response weakens such that the next chest flu could be the last. Telomerase was first discovered by Professor Elizabeth Blackburn and Molecular Biologist Carol W. Greider who were both awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2009 for this work. Though, what if bodies could be induced to express more Telomerase? That is what Dr. Andrews intends to do in order to prolong human life which would demonstrate one of the greatest breakthroughs on planet earth.

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